|Fossil-free fuels – options to reduce the transport sectors impact on the climate|
In Sweden, domestic transports account for almost a third of the total GHG emissions. The Swedish Parliament has taken a decision that the GHG emissions from the domestic transport sector should decrease by at least 70 percent in 2030, compared to 2010. The Committee on Transport and Communications has assessed different non-fossil fuels in the Swedish domestic transport sector with the aim to identify available alternatives and to increase the use of non-fossil fuels. Alternatives for different transport sectors that are sustainable from an ecological, social and economic perspective were taken into account. A life-cycle perspective covering the whole process from extraction of raw materials to production, distribution and the use in different vehicles was applied. In addition, fuel supply in urban and more sparsely populated areas in Sweden was taken into account as well as the availability of domestic raw materials and the possibilities for an increased domestic production. A combination of different fuels, such as liquid biofuels, different gases and electricity could, according to the assessment provide increased opportunities for the conversion from fossil to non-fossil transports. HVO from forest waste or from residues from the mass industry, and lignocellulose-based ethanol could be alternatives for the light road traffic, especially outside urban areas. Domestic biogas and EVs are other options, even though they demand a new vehicle fleet. Increased use of bio-ethanol and biogas could be alternatives for the heavy road vehicles. In shipping, batteries could be an option for short distance ferries. Electric cables could also be used to a greater extent. Swedish railways are almost completely electrified and an increasing share of renewable electricity could be an important contribution in reducing CO2 emissions. In addition, trolleybuses could be increasingly used in cities. The assessment shows that there are fewer options for the aviation industry and that different drop-in fuels could most likely constitute the main option in the coming years.