|Fake news, internet trolls, bots, and cyborgs in social media|
This descriptive article looks at the role of internet trolls and their sockpuppets, social bots, their groups (social botnets), and cyborgs in the processes of creating and spreading falsehoods on social media platforms. It begins with an overview of these actors’ activities, which are exacerbated by the ranking algorithms, social homophily, echo chambers, and filter bubbles. Next, the spread of fake news in social media is explored in more detail. The final section overviews the steps taken in 2016–2020 by technology companies to curb the volume and the users’ exposure to fake news.