|Initiatives supporting digital democracy at national level: an international comparison|
The Netherlands has a long tradition of citizen participation in local democratic processes, for example the development of a shopping mall or zoning plans for building projects. Nowadays, digital tools are being used more often in such cases. In response to a widely supported parliamentary motion and at the request of the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations, we have investigated digital tools for citizen engagement at the national level. Our desk research and comparative literature review of experiences abroad reveal the conditions under which various tools – from information systems and interactive online platforms to voting and visualisation instruments – can contribute to democratic legitimacy. Our interviews and expert meeting offer inspiration for enhancing and expanding current Dutch practices.