With synthetic biology (BioS) it is possible to build systems that artificially combine biological parts, for example the genes of different organisms, to generate improved or different functions from those that exist in nature. It is estimated that the products of the BioS will reach in 2021 a global market value of $ 11.4 billion dollars. BioS has already been used for the high-yield production of valuable chemical compounds in genetically modified microorganisms, such as drugs, biofuels and food components. Countries around the world invest strategically in BioS to generate sustainable economic and social development. Some of the main associated risks are the uncontrolled release to the environment or the malicious use of manipulated organisms. To overcome the challenges, Mexico could benefit from the development of Synthetic Biology, particularly in aspects of security, technological sovereignty, protection and use of its biodiversity.